Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Https

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Electronics

In the realm of electrons and light, ֱ provides the standards, develops the instruments and performs the calibrations necessary to keep both the smallest electronic components and the largest power grids running smoothly and safely.

Next-Generation Chips Require Multiple Measurement Approaches

Illustration: Computer chip in middle; surrounded by images of different scanning techniques
Credit: G. Orji and B. Barnes/ֱ
Measurement science—or metrology—is critically important in computer chips, from design to manufacturing and quality control.

The metrology requirements for next-generation computer chips are stringent and specialized. No single instrument has the speed and sensitivity that’s needed to characterize a host of complex material parameters and measure all of a chip’s dimensions—the tiny sizes and distances between its various features.

Learn more about ֱ's work in this space.

ֱ and Updates

Industry Impacts

Projects and Programs

Nanobiotechnology

We are developing methods, technology, and theories to enable the efficient detection, characterization, and identification of biological molecules. Our focus

Flexible and Printed Electronics

This project is focused on the measurements needed to accelerate the innovation cycle for semiconducting-inks for sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll printing, to

Quantum Conductance

Graphene, the two-dimensional honeycomb carbon lattice isolated in 2004, has enabled significant advancement in a variety of subfields in physics due to its

Publications

Cryogenic Calibration of the RF Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer

Author(s)
Justus A. Brevik, Alirio De Jesus Soares Boaventura, Akim Babenko, Manuel C. Castellanos Beltran, Nathan E. Flowers-Jacobs, Anna E. Fox, Peter F. Hopkins, Paul D. Dresselhaus, Dylan F. Williams, Samuel P. Benz
We performed a preliminary calibrated measurement of the output power of a Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer up to 1 GHz.We present the results and

Dual Josephson Impedance Bridge: Universal bridge for impedance metrology

Author(s)
Frederic Overney, Nathan E. Flowers-Jacobs, Blaise Jeanneret, Alain Rufenacht, Anna E. Fox, Paul D. Dresselhaus, Samuel P. Benz
This paper describes the results of the calibration of a 100 pF capacitance standard performed at 1233 Hz. Two calibration chains were used. The classical

Software

On-Wafer Calibration Software

ֱ Microwave Uncertainty Framework (Beta version) The ֱ Microwave Uncertainty Framework provides a "drag-and-drop" toolkit for managing the calculation of

Timebase Correction Software

The Timebase Correction (TBC) software package , used with high-speed sampling oscilloscopes, can correct both random and systematic timebase errors using

Tools and Instruments

Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Facility

The Applied Physics Division utilizes a fully automated, dual-chamber molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system for the growth of advanced, compound semiconductor

Nanocalorimeter Measurement System

This Nanocalorimeter Measurement System is used for nanocalorimetry measurements at fast heating rates (100 °C/s to 100,000 °C/s) and measurements of samples

Awards